[課程筆記] E-Business

章節連結

第一學期部分的 E-Business 逐堂筆記和研讀記錄。


作業形式

套用理論來分析 E-Business 的一個現象,約 2500字。

課程簡介

名稱:E-Business
代碼:NBS8322
修習時間:Term 1, 2018~2019
講師:Pf. Savvas Papagiannidis
主要參考書:
What is e-Business? How the Internet Transforms Organizations
資料來源:上述書籍、課堂投影片、Wikipedia、自身整理


課堂內容

CHAPTER 1

What is e-business? : how the internet transforms organisations

CHAPTER 2

1. Where do we draw the line?
Multi-channel retailers.
e-Commerce only include the transactions online.
e-Business means customers do shopping through the Internet, even though there is only a little part.
線上結合線下完成購物
The mature of the developing ICTs causes the rapid conduction in cost, and SMEs and individuals have access to the resources and embed them into their systems.
科技發展可以分為 Installation & development period, including five stages: irruption, frenzy, crash, synergy and maturity
P/E ratio
Business fundamentals: cost, efficiency, revenue generation and business
Internet bubble benchmark: 6.5% of the growth per year
E-Business 可分為:
B2B, B2C, C2C, P2P, G2B, G2C
Managers need to abandon previous concept and get used to new version and using new technology.
提早準備,以免被淘汰。
The power of the gathering information
Internet Techs allow us to manipulate, utilize, communicate and retrieve information
ICTs have already become the largest of all capital expenditure, which is the most vulnerable.


CHAPTER3

ICT 的核心是網路,可提供各式(虛擬的)服務
摩爾定律:積體電路(transistors embedded in a chip)的數量約每兩會加一倍
Gilder’s Law: the bandwidth of the communication will triple every year
TCP/IP, LAN
公私領域的投資相當重
Metcalfe’s Law: explosive growth of the Internet
a small increase of nodes on the network will significantly increase the number of users.
ICTs have penetrated into every corner of our society.
[ICT特點]
1. 訊息為主體
2. 經濟活動以ICT為基底支撐(underpin)
3. 交易活動得以增長
4. 結合全球各地活動
獨大現象
品牌溢價
低生產力的悖論(solow productivity paradox):舊有工作消失,會有新服務產出,整體而言失業率和通膨是下降的
ICT will result in faster inventory adjustments.
The sequence and the timing of companies’ investment are important.
ICT 可以是一種服務
人才(talents)是關鍵,對於利益產出非常重要。
The top talents in any field are in short supply and heavy demand.

CHAPTER4

1.新觀念 vs 舊觀念
降低庫存
所需資本下降
市場競爭激烈
資訊越發透明
2. 企業和顧客共同創造
3. ICT的運用成熟,讓顧客導向的模型得以實現
Kevin Kelly 的 12 原則
1. Connection: dumb power, 小東西帶來大改變
2. Plenitude: as long as more better things, profit could be universal. 好東西會愈來愈多
3. Success line is exponential.
4. Be aware of tipping point,趁早出清
5. Universal platform/standard is important
6. Customers always anticipate lower price.
7. to sell your service after installing your hardware. 廣步機型,賣服務
8. Web, Web, Web
9. To innovate more before you declined
10. new rules bring new opportunities
11. cycle system, somebody is dead, and other is born.
12. To do the right thing to adjust the environment.
Peter Schwartz (to imagine the future)
new economy, incremental(長時間建立價值), you won’t believe right now because the module hasn’t invented., crush&burn


CHAPTER 5

Transaction cost 可以分為
ex ante cost – drafting, negotiating
ex post cost – monitoring, enforcing contracts
Malone 及其同事提出了三個假設:
1. bounded theory – cognitive capabilities are limited (認知能力有限),我們不可能都將所有的資訊處理的完美
2. opportunism – decision makers will decide to serve their self-interests.
3. assets specificity – specific exchange relationship, and it lose the value outside of the focal relationship
資源在用於特定用途後,如果轉作其他用途則其價值會降低。
Merely converting organization structure is not enough to improve efficiency. It should be executed with strategic decisions, internal controls, etc.
A Revolution in Interaction
The boundary between the organization and its market – costs (transaction, interaction & transformation)
1. Transaction costs are lower within rather than outside.
uncertainty ↓; costs eliminate
2. However, transformation costs are the opposite. (scale economy)
Firms need to be consider both sides to set the boundary.
Interactions are not free, and in fact they are really expensive.
Interaction costs = sum of efforts = mental, physical to reach the target
Customers’ behaviours will also change.

Business Model 可以被解構為:
1. CRM
2. Product Innovation and commercialization
3. Infrastructure management
隨著科技的高速發展,Interaction Costs (組織內部,組織對外),都快速下降。
垂直整合(Vertically integrated) 降低了外部風險。

組織結構要慎選,系統化的發想不適合採用鬆散的組織架構(Virtual Organization),反倒要使用(Vertical Organization)。若使用不當,可能造成巨大損失。反倒是 autonomous 的發想,就適合使用 Virtual Organization, 讓個人意見得以發揮。

CHAPTER 6 New Strategies for the Network Economy

分類:
Economic Web – 組織傳送其價值到終端客戶
目的:產業規則&規格制定、創造/提昇回報
Technology Web
Value Web – 顧客價值最大化,it focus on managing the ownership of customer relationships and customer segments.
Market Web – 針對特定對象傳送的特定訊息網路 e.g. 放貸人員針對特定族群投放特定商品
特徵:
shapers – 制定規格、規則以提升價值 (E.g. Apple Microsoft Dell …)
adapters – 保有彈性,以因應市場變化 (E.g. 遊戲公司於多平台發行遊戲)
近期,分拆事業群、外包以因應市場競爭。

現在的公司做什麼?
1. 維繫客戶關係
2. 產品開發、商業模式
3. 管理(Infrastructure) – 追求規模經濟、生產更好的產品以加速回收投資成本 (ROI)

若不當的外包、分拆會引發問題:實際面對客戶端的子部門和母部門的衝突

現今,Virtual 組織僅能取代現有組織,節省內部溝通(Transaction)成本。

Innovation 可以分為兩種 – Autonomous, systemic innovations
Autonomous: virtual 型態可以有效聯繫各部門溝通
systemic innovations: integrated 型態可以降低個人錯誤決定導致的成本

組織要建立新的策略或是商業型態需要時間,並在長期和短期發展中取得平衡。另外,不要將所有業務都外包。


CHAPTER7 Managing Disruptive Strategic Innovations in the Economy

破壞式創新及策略不是新觀念,它早已存在。
兩種創新的想法:sustaining v.s. disruptive
若產品表現好且及早切入高階市場,那縱使有破壞式的創新就很難短時間追上。 (2013年以後的iPhone)
兩種破壞的想法;low-end disruption and new market disruption
Christensen 提出 value network,消費者在哪&應用消費的程式競爭
The new value networks constitute new customers who previously lacked the money or skills to buy and use the product, or different situations in which a product can be used.
需關注低端消費者的移動,也就是新加入者的機會。

Christensen 提出「環境」的概念來做市場區隔 – 消費者雇用產品來完成某些目標,所以 new-market costomers and low-end customers 不要輕易放過。 組織對於這樣的概念( job-to-be-done 消費者目標導向),可以選擇將產品、服務外包或是更加精進。當然,你也要考慮到ROI,故大公司較難進行精進,但對小公司而言很有吸引力。
破壞的策略可以是和傳統完全衝突的(例如廉價航空),當然也可以選擇忽視新進者(認為市場不同)或是兩手策略。
The theory of this chapter is not specific to the knowledge-based, network economy ,而是由網路及系統科技的發展所導致的。

CHAPTER 8 Emerging E-Business Models in the Network Economy

Business Model Definition 可以分為三派:
Paul Timmers, 11 Kinds by degree of innovation & functional integration
Rappa, 9 Kinds defined by Revenue type
Alexander Osterwalder, Pillars(大類)&Blocks of business model (小類),Pillars 彼此之間會交互作用

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