[課程筆記] Digital Marketing

章節連結

第二學期部分的 Digital Marketing 逐堂筆記和研讀記錄。以6~8人的團體報告為主( Presentation + Group Report),外加 Individual Reflection。

課程簡介

名稱:Digital Marketing
代碼:NBS8519, Newcastle University Business School
修習時間:Term 2, 2018~2019
講師:Dr. Ana Javornik
主要參考書:
1. Hofacker, C. F. (2018). Digital Marketing: Communicating, Selling and Connecting. Edward Elgar Publishing.
2.Kotler, P., Kartajaya, H., & Setiawan, I. (2017). Marketing 4.0: Moving from traditional to digital. John Wiley & Sons.
資料來源:上述書籍、課堂投影片、Wikipedia、自身整理


課堂內容

Lecture 1 – What is Marketing?

個人和群體為獲得他們所需,而與他人進行物品或價值的交換(Kotler et al. 1999)。
The process of identifying, anticipating, understanding and satisfying customers’ needs profitably.
To attract and retain customers at a profit. (Jobber and Fahy, 2009)
Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large. (Approved by AMA in 2013)

Marketing Mix (行銷組合)
The combination of tactics used by a business to achieve its objectives. 企業為實現其目標而使用的策略組合。
4P: Place, Product, Promotion, Price;7P: 4P+ People, Process, Physical Evidence

markeing mix

In the digital world:
1. Customers connected with the product/service well. – They won’t keep the shortcomings.
相似的評論夠多,可以使消費者認為其非個人主觀認為,而是大家普遍認為。 太多的好評價,會有邊際效應遞減的狀況
2.線上就可以知道商品的促銷效果如何
3.價格透明化非常重要,商家很難隱藏
Price determines the “positioning” of the product/service in terms of perceived value.
Freemium Pricing: 促進品牌/服務曝光 – 提供免費版本,進而轉化成忠實客戶
4.面對第一線客戶的職員(People),影響客戶對於品牌/商品/服務的滿意度
5.Multi-channel retailing requires process integration. The channels exist in each other. Profits have been made through the various channels due to the integration of the business process.
6.Physical evidence gives a cue to persuade the customers.

digital marketing objective Electronic tools used to store, transmit and receive digitized information. (Strauss & Frost, 2012, p.42)
Owned media (自有媒體);Paid Media (付費媒體);Earned Media (口碑媒體)
E-Commerce: 電子化的交易過程
e-Business: Information System 和其他的應用程式推動的整個網路商業行為
Marketing Intelligence:商業智慧,如利用 Big Data 進行分析, e-CRM, brand equity

marketing purpose

Online Application 的價值:
1. Marketing Intelligence – Identify and anticipate customer needs
2. To stimulate interest and impulse buying
3. To Manage customer relationships – after sales services and communication throughout the customer lifecycle
4. Manage brand equity – brand image, associations, identity, reputation
5. Promote new and existing products and services with variable tools
6. Social and e-commerce
7. Co-create value – in collaboration with potential, actual customers and other stakeholders


Lecture 2 – From Web 1.0 to Web 4.0

Web 1.0 – Product-centric
Web 2.0 – Blogging, Social Networking, Photo, Video – Content Sharing
運用現有的資料管理、客戶服務系統,試圖掌握全部的關注 (The Long Tail)。使用者貢獻自身的價值到網路世界。
change from web 1.0 to 4.0
compared chart web 1.0 and 2.0Web 3.0 – 3D運用,客製化,虛實整合。科技,特別是行動化的連結,得以運用在商業、媒體、教育、醫療等產業且更加深化。
Human-Centric,人們共同創造內容。
The user and the web have merged into a continuous process of co-creation.
evolution of web 1.0 to 3.0Web 4.0 – 共享經濟
Inclusivity instead of exclusivity – 包容性而非排他性
Horizontal structures instead of vertical structures – 水平結構,扁平化
建基在 Web 3.0 之上,但運用 IS 及更多的數位資源,使其更聰明且符合個人需求

Consumers are better informed, better connected, more communicative, and more in control.
The content needs to deliver what they want, and it needs to deliver quickly; Time is also a commodity (Ryan, 2016; Kotler et al. 2017).
更注重匿名性和無縫體驗

因此,線上消費者會有著以下的期待。
1.Higher standards of service
2.Higher convenience
3.Speed of delivery
4.Competitive price
5.Choice

這些期待是源自於:個人經驗、朋友意見和組織的推廣(像是推銷)

Generation Y and Z 仍有些許的不同。前者有經歷過沒有網路或不那麼發達的年代,後者一出生就生活在各種電子產品、網路的包圍中。同時後者也有更網路成癮、更國際化、擅於使用科技溝通的現象。
Consumer Role Social Media is used for engagement, participation and Co-creation. 傾聽顧客的想法
Customer’s path to purchase – still linear, but more dynamic representation.

current customer experience(Lemon & Verhoef, 2016)


Lecture 3 – Owned Media

Traditional funnel expanded into a more complex journey with multiplied touchpoints.
purchasing path touching pointsOwned Media 包含 Mobile Apps, Websites, Emails, Blogs and Social Pages
網站的價值:
Lead (or contacts) generation
Marketing communications – Promote sales
Build brand equity – Brand awareness
Revenue Generation – prospect generation/sales of products/services;
Customer Service Support – FAQ’s, webchats
Selling advertising spaces – selling spaces to advertisers
Cost reduction with online efficiencies – no store rent cost
Provide high volume, quality and variety of information
Engage consumers
Give feedback
Express their preference
Invite consumers to share your content
Link the brand’s content to other media types and other brand channels
Personalise offerings
所以,網站的設計、Logo、命名、產品相片很重要。

客戶的期待來自於:自身經驗、同儕看法和公司對外的溝通。對於電商,提供正確且容易尋找的資訊、快速且品質優良的客戶服務、準時送達和方便的退貨政策…等,都是滿足客戶期待的要件。
Expectation confirmation theory
disconfirmation paradigmTypes of Risk
財務風險;效能風險(無法提供承諾的服務品質);物理風險(產品使人受傷或危害健康);社群風險:心理風險;時間風險;隱私和管道風險

網站的可用性 Usability
a quality attribute that assesses how easy user interfaces are to use (Nielsen, 2000)
1.由左到右讀,找資訊
2.由上到下滑動的頁面約為 800 px – Limited attention span
3.簡單、訊息清楚的導覽列


Lecture 4 – SEM & SEO

Search Engine Optimisation  – SEO,搜尋引擎優化 aims to increase visibility in ‘organic’ listings via a ‘search engine friendly’ web site.
有兩種列表型態:’organic list’ based on the popularity; ‘Paid Search’ depends on the bids.
但是注意,影響排名的因素很多 ,popularity or bids are just two main factors.

Search engine marketing (SEM) is a form of Internet marketing that seeks to promote websites by increasing their visibility.
提供特定的訊息給特定族群,若你的資訊屬於 high quality (frequently, proper information, and so on),那就有很高的機會被搜尋引擎推播出去。
sem chart

Pay per click (PPC) 的行銷方式,其關鍵字採用競價(Bid)模式,所以越熱門的關鍵字會非常昂貴。代表為 Google Adwords
organic and ppc

Important Ranking Criteria – 從使用者的角度出發來評斷
1. Relevant information, comprehensive contents with pictures, tables, etc.
2. Links from diverse and authoritative domains
3. Mobile Website experience
SEO processKeywords – 如何決定關鍵字
1. Assess your current search ranking (x keyword, topic)
2. Do keyword research
3. Use your keywords to create good quality content
別忘記,要跟你的網站內容有關
放置位置:Meta-tag HTML, tags, title, domain, description tag, <h2></h2>, alt, .etc.

其他影響 Search Engine Results Pages (SERP) 的因素:
Localization, universal search (news, videos, images, etc.), personalization
contents of strategicConsumer Journey
customer journey


Lecture 5 – Online Brand Engagement

7P in digital content
marketing mixTheir shop in a specific way
purchase decisionBrand Engagement and dimensions
可以和客戶忠誠度、滿意度、信任…等向度畫上關聯
1.The Cognitive dimension reflects the enduring and active mental states that consumer experiences.
2.The Emotional dimension
3.The Behavioral dimension
Previous studies have proved that the contents shared on social media must be “engaging” and a “source of entertainment”, in order to trigger customer engagement (Patterson et al., 2006; Brown et al., 2007).

Scale for customer engagement (Hollebeek et al. 2014)
research resultLadders of online engagement
ladder of engagement增加 Engagement 的行為:Like, Comment, Sharing, Co-creating contents
Online Communities – to share interests, explore new identities, develop social relations
Honeycomb Model (Kietzmann et al. 2011)
honeybomb chart不過企業需要做好形象控制,因為品牌的塑造很難,毀壞或是轉彎倒是很快。


Lecture 6 – Digital strategy – Omni Channel

Omni Channel
全渠道零售是指企業採取儘可能多的零售渠道類型進行組合和整合(跨渠道)銷售的行為,以滿足顧客購物、娛樂和社交的綜合體驗需求。渠道類型包括有形店鋪(實體店鋪、服務網點)、無形店鋪(上門直銷、直郵目錄、電話購物、電視商場、網路商店、手機商店),以及媒體(網站、客服中心、社交媒體、E-mail、臉書)。
和 Multi-Channel 的區別在於:Multi-Channel 的眾多渠道之間,並沒有強調其關聯性。換言之,只是提供多個方法讓消費者完成購買行動而已。Omni Channel 則重視彼此之間的轉換和訊息聯繫。如消費者可以線上下單,實體門市取貨,有疑問於網路上客服反應。

Marketing Strategy (Kotler)

“The marketing strategy is the way in which the marketing function organises its activities to achieve profitable growth in sales at a marketing mix level.”
“A marketing strategy may be defined as a plan (usually long term) to achieve the organisation’s objectives.”

策略的展現方式著重於 what (Resources)、how to enhance、organise each other,以上都要與 Value Proposition 有關。Marketing Plan 要注意如何置入行銷活動中。
Integrating traditional and digital marketing (Kotler et al. 2017)
traditional and digital marketing mixSOSTAC Framework (Chaffey & PR Smith, 2013)
SOSTAC framework訂立 KPI,請注意通常是以 “%” 作為判斷標準,而非絕對數字。不過至於參照的指標(Metrics)和關聯Data需要審慎思量,否則會有灌水數字嫌疑。
ROI PyramidOnline buying process and measures at different stages
online buyer processCustomer path in a connected world (Kotler et al. 2017)
5A and 5 stages


Lecture 7 – Immersive technologies

科技於實體店面的運用,力求打造沉浸式的體驗。導用不少的新科技、APP、AR、VR等,以求和顧客有更多的互動,並獲得更多寶貴的資料。
AR 於市場上用於擴充實境,活用於穿戴裝置和手機上。
designing immersive experience framework of user experience with AR in public設計 AR 體驗時,要注意的點如下:

keep in mind designing AR retail experience


Lecture 8 Guest Talk

“Social Media: Powerful, fun and upsetting” by Dr Ben Marder

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