[課程筆記] Customer Relationship Management

第二學期部分的 Customer Relationship Management 逐堂筆記和研讀記錄。每堂課包含30分鐘的概念講授&90分鐘的 Case Study。為了增進大家的課堂參與,每個學生都會有:
1. 一個個人負責的主題 – 課堂討論時擔任反方
2. 分派到每週的Case Study,進行分組口頭報告(像是讀書會導讀的角色),需準備10~15分的投影片內容(頁數不能超過4頁)。
上面兩者構成90分鐘的Case Study討論正反二方。


名稱:Customer Relationship Management
代碼:NBS8236, Newcastle University Business School
修習時間:Term 2, 2018~2019
講師:Dr Josephine Go Jefferies
Payne, A and Frow, P. (2013), Strategic Customer Management: Integrating Relationship Marketing and CRM, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Lecture 1 Introduction to CRM

CRM 的歷史演進
crm history了解你的客戶;組織行銷活動;主動的利用手邊資訊;對價值做出取捨;一對一的客製化
crm relationshipcrm evolution第一類:CRM是e-commerce的應用 (Khanna, 2001) 且是行銷的驅動器(Kutner and Cripps, 1997)
第二類:CRM is a term for methodologies, technologies, and e-commerce capabilities used by companies to manage customer relationships (Stone and Woodcock, 2001)
第三類:CRM is about the development and maintenance of long- term, mutually beneficial relationships with strategically significant customers (Buttle, 2001)
crm perspective and definitions不過,CRM的失敗率不小(約在40%左右),其可能原因很多,像是:缺乏管理;不知需要的資源如何;目標對象不明;認為CRM僅是IT部門的事情…等。需注意,CRM是一種跨平台、部門的經營策略。(Payne and Frow, 2013, p. 26)

CRM 的種類
crm typesPayne & Frow’s 5-Processes Modelpayne and frow's 5-process model

Lecture 2 Relationship Marketing

什麼是 Relationship?
A relationship is composed of a series of interactive episodes between … parties over time.” (Buttle, 2009, p. 27) 隨著時間過去而進行的一系列互動
Awareness, Exploration, Expansion, Commitment, Dissolution
Customer Relationship Ladder:
customer paddlerTransaction Marketing to Relationship Marketing (交易行銷 V.S. 關係行銷) – 前者著重於一次性的交易;後者則看重未來
transition of relationship managementcross functional orientation

Customer Market Framework,可分為:
Internal (內部);Referral (再推薦);Influence (影響力);Recruitment (招聘);Supplier/Alliance (供應鍊和聯盟)
Customers integrate into the processes.
three structureBuilding blocks of lasting relationships
1.Trust – 由低到高,乃基於計算基礎的信任(行為一致);基於知識基礎(多數可預期);基於對他人認同(全然了解)
2.Commitment – 由信任、共同價值延伸而來,傾向長期關係,宛如一種長期投資,擁有較高的終止成本
3.Satisfaction – 一種客戶對於產品或服務的預期量度,可延伸為 Retention/Loyalty
customer profit4.Loyalty – 分為兩種:Behavioural (如購買量和頻率) and Attitudinal(信任和情感) loyalty
repeat relationship management什麼是價值?
To think about what kind of products can be delivered with business value

價值主張 Value Preposition 是指個人或企業對於提供的產品或服務能為客戶作出的承諾價值,這種承諾價值必須建立在滿足客戶或潛在客戶需求上,並達到個人或企業獲利的目的。
core profit of customer relationshipValue Delivery Strategies – 三個維度是有排擠效應的 (產品領先、操作卓越和貼近顧客)
strategies three dimensions

Case Study 1: Updown Cigarette

1. 當制定銷售策略時,企業需考慮:Marketing, Ethical and health perspective。縱使他們的目標客群喜歡這些產品,也需要考量其他的觀感。
2. The most compelling part: Health-issue; more companies promote tobacco products targeted at Afro-Americans.
3. To understand the customers’ value is complex
Where is the money flowing?
1.Television Companies
2.ad revenue
To think about “value chain”, relationships of B2B and B2C

Lecture 3 Strategy Development Process

Segment granularity:how tiny levels of customers which corporations decide?
了解不同的 CRM 策略和傳遞途徑,Strategy Development Process 是整體策略架構的第一步。
旗下分為 Business Strategy & Customer Strategy

customer strategy framework CRM策略:創造價值的藝術,力圖了解知識、關係、顧客與組織能力(organization’s competencies, ex. 員工)。

Business Strategy:訂出未來方向、達成企業目標、商業模式要符合企業的長遠利益
Business Vision:to reflect basic beliefs, values and aspiration. – 透過 mission statement, statement of purpose… 等文件紙本化來描述

分析產業的外在環境 – 如 PESTEL、POrter’s Generic Strategic Framework…等。
(P.S. Cost Focus: China; Cost leadership: South Korea)
在爭取市場的領先策略上,可以使用 Market Leaders Framework – 可分為Product Leadership (產品導向)、Operational Excellence (卓越經營) 和 Customer Intimacy (客戶關係)
customer strategy 紅海策略:
Blue Ocean Comparision
Blue Ocean


1.可以藉由 Strategy Canvas 戰略布局圖,來評估自己的市場地位。(從自身位置、替代品、競爭者…等)
key competitors blue ocean

2.可使用 EERC Grid – Eliminate, Raise, Reduce, Create
ERRC grip換言之:
1. Organisations need to determine more specifically their choice of customers and their characteristics.
2. Involves examining the firm’s existing and potential customers and identifying which forms of segmentation are most appropriate.
3. Organisations need to identify the characteristics of their customers and customer segments

企業的顧客可以是 B2B or B2C。

Customer Segment Strategy:
customer segmentation

Transition Paths for CRM,
CRM Transition path

Case Study 2: Best Buy – 關於送修服務的客戶資料處理、隱私等問題

故事背景 –
Raelyn Campbell, a former Best Buy customer, claimed that she lost her laptop for more than 5 months since asking for repair service. In addition, the identity may be theft due to the loss of the data of tax return.
應對方式 –
1. to create a fake record which did not exist originally
2. She sent the mail to CRM group, asked for reimbursement, but she didn’t get any response.
3. 她已著手審視客戶保護政策不足的地方,並考慮法律行動
4. Robert Delissio insulted her friends in the mails. (From her perspective)
5. 起初補償誠意不足(Gift Card)。她決定提出遺失賠償、三倍補償和懲罰性賠償(關於隱私和客戶權益)
6.合作廠商 Geek Squad 有不良記錄(側錄客人資料),不過 Best Buy 認為是單一個案(isolated incident)
7. Best Buy 本身也有不少案例,如理應銷燬的客戶硬碟跑到市場上販售…等
8.Best Buy 需決定如何選擇處理這種情況的方式,會影響公關形象。 此外必須重新評估關於消費者隱私的政策是否足夠。
Where can BB deliver their value to customers? Why do they try to change them immediately (do not reflect themselves)?
Who will be in charge of the case?
The duty between Best Buy and Geek Squad – Different perspectives
Why the CEO did not think of the severe level?
What is the customers’ demand in their complaints? Service Recovering, serendipity
Value proposition 不符合職員的行為
Best Buy 專注在商業流程(transaction)而不是維繫關係


Lecture 4 Enterprise Value Creation

Maximising the value of the most desirable customer segments – Existing Profitability & Potential Profitability,可以思考 80/20 Rule。
藉由 Customer Profitability Analysis 來找出甜蜜點,換言之就是找出你的鐵粉。
80 20 rules不同的客群,會購買不同的商品組合,因而利潤也大不相同。與顧客培養緊密關係,創造高利潤,同時也留住客人(Customer Retention)。留住客人創造的利潤多半是比開發新客高的,不過還是要依照產業而定。
long bar chartFuture Profit Potential = Actual Value + Potential Value + Unrealized Value
customer future calue以了解以下面向:
1.Customer Acquisition – 認識你的顧客,可以計算出 Break-Even Time (損益平衡點)
the existing customer acquisition costs and to identify how these costs vary within different segments.
customer benefit management cycle2.Customer Retention – 留住客人能創造更大利潤
retention value3.Customer Advocacy – 口碑行銷 – Net Promoter Score (NPS)

改善利潤的循環:Cross-sell, Up-sell, Retain, Advocacy, Acquire and repeat again
Cross-sell: 像是 Air Ticket + Car rental
Up-sell: 像是 Air Ticket + Upgrade
Typology helps an organisation reach appropriate decisions concerning how to best utilise its resources. (Peppers and Rogers, 2011)future profit with customer segmentation針對不同的潛在獲利,用不同的銷售策略。future profit with strategy Customer Lifetime Value (CLV)
Payne and Frow (2013) define CLV as the net present value of the future profit flows over the lifetime of the customer relationship.
計算方式:運用淨現值的概念 (NPV)。
CLV = GC*r/(1+d-r)
GC = 平均購買價格*年銷售額*平均淨利
d: rate of discount(通常為 inflation rate) r:顧客維持率
NPS Score

Case Study 3:Starbucks – 公開場合餵母乳的適當性

星巴克的價值 progressive, liberal, honor (black apron):
1. to respect the diversity,不過 breastfeeding probably broke the legislation and offend others. They need to take the balance.
2. 員工同享紅利 – All Starbucks’ employees who work more than 20 hours per week are eligible for benefits.
3. 友善耕作(契作) – The company also works with the farmers who grow the coffee beans to improve their lives.
4. Starbucks experience includes ‘customer’.
故事背景 –
The activist group composed of breastfeeding mothers owing powerful and negotiate skills asked to the ’nurse-in’ in Starbucks. At that time, there was not any restroom with breastfeeding allocation.
Audrey Lincoff, the spokeswoman for Starbucks, need to figure out how to reply on the issue.
She worried about:
A. media attention
B. the final decision – to cater or ignore them
美國各州法律多半已經允許公開餵母乳,也免除嬰兒用品的銷售稅金。因此,Starbucks需要想辦法抓住這個目標客戶群。不過依照公司角度,也不可能全盤接受這個客群所謂的 ‘friendly-family’ 要求。若做了,豈不是冒犯另外其他TA?
應對方式 –
會給予教育訓練,並請客人諒解 (團體雖接受,但不滿意)。Lorig(當事人之一),要求全美的星巴克都要比照辦理。不過,顧客也有正反聲音出現。
Jeremy Dorosin 因過往購買咖啡機的不愉快經驗,使其成為公開在媒體上反對星巴克的一員(Influencer)。
Thinking –
1. 設立醒目的告示於店門口、店內有專屬區塊、或投放廣告於媒體上,表示星巴克守法(to follow the laws)且尊重人類乳房的基本功能
2. To do some procedures like offering the toilet with breastfeeding function to strike a balance

Lecture 5 Multichannel Integration Process

Channel 是連結生產者和終端消費者的橋樑,可以分為 Distribution Channels (像是 Wholesaler) 和 Contact Channels (像是 Email, SNS, Call Center)。
另一種分類方式為 Indirect Channels & Direct Channels。
types of channelsIndirect Channels:運用中間媒介(Intermediary)和消費者溝通,如超市
缺點:缺乏對中間媒介的 CRM 活動掌握、需要與通路密切合作
indirect channel pros and cons

Direct Channels:直接和消費者溝通,如公司直營店
優點:掌握 CRM 活動細節、了解並直接觀察消費者的反應
direct channel pros and cons

公司可以根據自身需要,做出組合(Multichannel System)。
grid of direct and indirect channelsMultichannel Trend
pros and cons for companies1. Proliferation of direct channels – 直接管道中獲利


2. Multichannel systems as a norm

採用多管道策略,能提昇客戶忠誠度、銷售成長和效率 – 這是有效的拉力

3. Multichannel shopper


4. Research shopper phenomenon – 先研究後購買



3 factors of building multichannelscustomer loyalty cultimating Channel Integration – Enhancing customer loyalty
Channel Separation
retail catalog internet造成Miltichannel Shoppers的驅動力:
drivers of multichannels shopper

Case Study 4:TIAA–CREF – 變與不變的兩難 – Retention Strategy

故事背景 –
Herb Allison 於2002年底掌握了全美教師退休金協會(TIAA-CREF),它是全美最大的私有退休金組織,資產總額高達2600億美元、擁有超過320萬名會員。不過,這間公司狀態並不透明(非客戶導向)。It had limited direct contact with its customers. 隨著其他的競爭者如 Vanguard, Fidelity 的進入市場,TIAA-CREF勢必要進行轉型成一間客戶導向(customer-focused)的公司。
聯邦法律的改變,如IRA提供個人新的投資選擇(Contribution Plan)或是401k退休帳戶。對協會都是衝擊。退休金資產一般是1946~1964的嬰兒潮世代擁有。
公司運用投資人的資金(主要來源為薪水or其他),去投資 Insituition 的相關金融產品,然後運用其收益當成退休金。
不過,TIAA-CREF 是運用 B2B的運作模式,而非直接面對顧客。故2003年以後,其目標著重於 Customer Life Value (CLV)。
應對方式 –
1. By 2003, customer-oriented financial service firms had made significant inroads into TIAA–CREF’s base.
2. TIAA-CREF 過往的應對緩慢,沒有市場上新有的金融商品與跟不上其他競爭者。
3. 2001年,TIAA試著從內部做出策略上的調整 – 借用華爾街經驗,所以找來Herb Allison –
聚焦6大面向((1) industry trends and macro themes, (2) customer and competitive position, (3) financial position, (4) talent, leadership and compensation, (5) non-traditional markets and opportunities, and (6) information technology.) – 每一個面向都有權限去設定自己的目標,並依據以下的關鍵項目,訂出具體的執行步驟。
Customer Life Stage, Share of relationship, Lifetime value, Costs of customization, Costs of funds management, Control Metrics
5.Allison and his management team had to consider options presented by the task forces in six interrelated areas: market identification, customer segmentation, provision of services, brand image, employee compensation and evaluation, and organizational structure. – 整體公司組織上的改造
7.根據服務類型,分為 Client Services, Product Management, Investment Managementppt in class lecturer 5-1
Thinking –
1. ‘open architecture and objective advice’ 是個極高風險的舉措,因為使得個人或是組織得以掌握/選擇退休金的投資比例。但並非人人都具有投資相關的知識,萬一退休金不幸沒了,會不會喪失原本的目的?
4.如何妥善的決策於 保留既有顧客 v.s. 拓展新客源?那個比例如何拿捏。
ppt in class lecturer 5-2
2.TIAA-CREF tries to transform the market.
3.Companies should think about how to use the theoretic tools/frameworks to hold on some decisions.

Lecture 6 (Case 5) Customer Relationship Management at Capital One (UK)

故事背景 –
Fairbank and Morris 於1980年代提出了信用卡的策略:‘the right product to the right customer at the right time, at the right price’.。主要營利來源為年費、循環利息、商家抽成…等。而且,這樣還可以促進交叉銷售(信用參考),以及接觸潛在客戶。2000年時,CRM開始被 Capital One 運用,了解客戶並提升忠誠度。

Business Model
1.Customer requires a different product and service benefits from a credit card provider.
2.Each customer carries a specific and unique credit risk and potential revenue profile, based mainly on their previous credit history

Information-based strategy

應對方式 – 分為4個部門 –
M&A – 認識你的顧客,分析眾多數據(後台)
Operations – 協助顧客找到最適合的產品(前線)
Operations Processing, Customer Relations, Sales, Collections
IT – 資料、帳戶、金流和風險管理
Human Resources – 聘僱、訓練、轉變(晉升)和績效獎勵

未來挑戰:了解深層的顧客需求、成本控制、Co-ordinating Channels(不同渠道間的合作)

Lecture 7 Information and Technology Management Process

Information 在 CRM 中的角色:
Information 提供管理者決策的依據,可以有效的管理並增進與客戶的關係。這類的 Information 可以用 Quality, Quantity, Relevance, Timing, Ownership 和 Application 來加以衡量。掌握資訊只是第一步,建立關係且導引他們做出明智的決定才是關鍵。
“Real value of information lies in its use, not in its existence.”

IT 在 CRM 中的角色:
IT 是用以協助管理,畢竟IT只是個管理工具,實際的決策還是得靠CRM。換言之,CRM是個通往消費者內心想法的途徑,而非終點。

Information Management 在 CRM 中的角色:
將 Information 轉化成可用的知識,甚至是智慧。(Data→Information→Knowledge→Wisdom)
資訊管理可以統整成 Organisation(收集、儲存和傳遞);Utilisation(分析、轉譯和運用);規範(監控、資訊安全)
1st: 分析現況 (Strategic review of the current situation)、了解訊息完整度和有多少程度能運用在客戶身上
2nd: 導入 CRM 等科技工具,確保策略得以正確執行
crm strategy mix 要注意的點為:驅動力為組織的策略,而非在IT部門上。能夠幫助CRM的資訊管理的基本設備要同步跟上腳步(Decision Support System)。
crm hirearchy

database front end客戶的期待是能夠與組織有持續的溝通(Consistent Dialogue)。

1. Individual Customer-Level (滿意度、活動、往來歷史、客戶區隔)
2. Marketplace-Level (外部環境)
3. Internal
4. External
1. 內外部資料是否要整合來一起分析?頻率如何?何時並用怎樣的頻率來收集資訊?
2. 如何管理這些資料,隨著複雜程度上升,資料的正確性、品質和如何避免衝突就值得重視

Customer Privacy is a factor of judging a successful CRM.
Drivers of Privacy Concerns
customer privacy concern有崇尚企業自主管理的美國制代表和政府強制介入的德國制代表。
隱私保護的原則(從使用者的角度出發):Notice, Choice, Access, Security, Data Integrity, Enforcement, Onward transfer of data
customer privacy response

to prevent customer privacy leakage

Lecture 8 Performance Assessment Process & Organising for Implementation (Part A)

CRM 的效能如何測量?因為 CRM 是多功能、跨部門的活動,會運用 Performance Assessment Process 來處理 – 了解來自關鍵人物(Shareholder)的原動力、適當的標準、規範和KPI,最後要有有效的監管,以確保這套機制能正常運作。
cost reduction評斷標準(Standard):運用 QCI (結果用多維度分數呈現) or COPC
crm qis standard指標(Metrics) – 依照組織需要定義,通常不離 customer, operational, strategic, compartive&output, specialised。

CRM 如何置入組織中?
crm strategy and implementation model
resultCRM Readiness Audit (CRM如何稽核,評估系統成效)
Overview, comprehensive audit
level of implementation

Case Study 6 Barneys New York: A Case of “Shop and Frisk”

故事背景 –
19歲的黑人大學生,用打工賺來的錢進入Barneys位於美國Madison大道的專門店買一條350美元的皮帶。律師表示:警方懷疑當事人盜用他人信用卡、竊盜。而警方是 Barneys 找來的。如此的爭議性話題,立刻登上媒體版面。
先前Barneys, Macy’s也有類似案例。
Barneys 起家時並非奢華品牌,是其創辦人兒子於1970年代的改變。但股權幾近轉換,2012年起是一間私人持有的公司。
零售業也有所轉變,百貨業已經蕭條。電子商務取而代之。Retail loss prevention (損失預防) 是預留人為犯錯、小偷…等行為所造成的損失。
The Grand Larceny Problem (大竊盜問題)使的紐約警方對於可能嫌疑人攔查(Stop and Frisk)的機會上升。
應對方式 –
1.to post the statements (one is by the editor of FB; one is from CEO); however, they did not work. Users believed they were lack of an apology.
Thinking –
1.Barneys 有可能是無辜的,畢竟警方說是 Barneys 的員工報案,一般民眾多半會相信警察。
2.Barneys 若採用關懷客戶的實際作為(像是費用免除、邀約訪談並播出、主動上節目澄清…等),而非僅是某個層級的經理的聲明,可能會使傷害小一些。
4.「潛意識的偏見或歧視」(Unconscious Bias),又稱「內隱偏見」 (Implicit Bias)。
Do you think if employees learn some psychological courses paid by companies, could they avoid the situation happen again?
1.Keep the public updated.
2.Get the attention of the media. (image, video, website, campaign)
3.Interview the employees and show your diversity
4.Transparent with customers
5.Barneys should fix policy related to lose prevention and racial issues.

6.The responses are just focused on business problems rather than customers.

Lecture 9 Performance Assessment Process & Organising for Implementation (Part B)

Guest Lecture: Accenture, revision guides, and feedback


Case Study 7 Choice Point: Personal Data and a loss of Privacy